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Interactive Graphical Animation of Human Knee Joint Movements


T. Pröll, R. Riener, R. Burgkart

vol. 1256, pp. 156-161, CARS

Training and education of young medical doctors or students today is comprised by two phases: In the first phase, the theoretical part, medical knowledge (e.g., human anatomy and surgical procedures) is taught by text books or videos. In the practical phase, the novices have the chance to gain experience and manual skills by working with real human patients. The quality of the second part depends on the amount of patients and the spectrum of injuries or pathologies that are available during the schedule of a typical training course. In many cases, there are not enough patients to provide an intensive training for all students of a course. In this paper the novel approach of an "interactive phantom" is presented that allows a realistic simulation of a human knee joint with a large number of optional pathologies. With this training system, students can treat a virtual patient with any pathology at any time. This 'Munich Knee Joint Simulator', which is realized within the government funded VOR (Virtual Orthopedic Reality) project consists of three displays: The haptic display is comprised by a plastic model of a lower leg connected to a mechanical actuator. This interface provides the force feedback of a real human shank. The acoustic display generates realistic sounds of the patient, e.g. expressions of pain or sounds in the knee. The graphical display presents the movement and the deformations of the different anatomical components of the knee in real time. This interaction is useful to improve the understanding of the internal mechanics, especially in pathologic cases.


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% Autogenerated BibTeX entry
@Article { Pr_Rie:2003:IFA_1721,
    author={T. Pr{\"o}ll and R. Riener and R. Burgkart},
    title={{Interactive Graphical Animation of Human Knee Joint
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