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Elastic properties of the intact and ACL ruptured knee joint: measurement, mathematical modelling, and haptic rendering


M. Fre., R. Riener, C. Michas, F. Regenfelder, R. Burgkart

Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 39, pp. 1371-1382

An analytical, dynamic model of the human knee joint has been developed to simulate the unloaded knee joint behaviour in 6 degrees of freedom. It is based on extensive robot-based measurements of the elastic properties of a human cadaver knee joint. The measured data are compared with data from the literature to ensure that a proper database for modelling is used. The analytical modelling of the passive elastic joint properties is done with Local Linear Model Trees. The deduced knee joint model incorporates passive elastic properties of the internal knee joint structures, passive elastic muscle forces, damping forces, gravitational forces, and external forces. There are two sets of parameters, one simulating the movement of the intact knee joint, and a second simulating the knee joint with ruptured anterior cruciate ligament. The dynamic model can be easily processed in real-time. It is implemented in the haptic display of the Munich Knee Joint Simulator (MKS), which enables a person to move a plastic leg driven by a robot manipulator and feel the simulated knee joint force. Orthopaedic physicians judged the performance of the dynamic knee joint model by executing physical knee joint tests at the MKS.


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% Autogenerated BibTeX entry
@Article { FreEtal:2006:IFA_2269,
    author={M. Fre. and R. Riener and C. Michas and F. Regenfelder and R. Burgkart},
    title={{Elastic properties of the intact and ACL ruptured knee
	  joint: measurement, mathematical modelling, and haptic
    journal={Journal of Biomechanics},
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