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Identification of passive elastic joint moments in the lower extremities


R. Riener, T. Edrich

Journal of Biomechanics, no. 32, pp. 539-544

Musculotendon actuators produce active and passive moments at the joints they span. Due to the existence of bi-articular muscles, the passive elastic joint moments are influenced by the angular positions of adjacent joints. To obtain quantitative information about this passive elastic coupling between lower limb joints, we examined the passive elastic joint properties of the hip, knee, and ankle joint of ten healthy subjects. Passive elastic joint moments were found to considerably depend on the adjacent joint angles. We present a simple mathematical model that describes these properties on the basis of a double-exponential expression. The model can be implemented in biomechanical models of the lower extremities, which are generally used for the simulation of multi-joint movements such as standing-up, walking, running, or jumping.


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% Autogenerated BibTeX entry
@Article { RieEdr:1999:IFA_2285,
    author={R. Riener and T. Edrich},
    title={{Identification of passive elastic joint moments in the
	  lower extremities}},
    journal={Journal of Biomechanics},
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