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Modelling and Control in Anaesthesia - From Design to Validation


K.S. Stadler

vol. ETH Diss no. 15222

Patient safety and cost reduction as a cause of minimized drug consumption and shortened post-operative recovery phases are part of the main issues to motivate automation in anaesthesia. The anaesthetist has four main objectives while maintaining anaesthesia, these are to provide hypnosis, analgesia, skeletal muscle relaxation and artificial ventilation. For all objectives a solution to automate these routine tasks is described including the clinical tests on patients undergoing general anaesthesia for elective surgery. A first focus is on the development of a framework for the design of closed-loop controllers. This includes a modelling framework based on a physiologically based model. With the same model structure the patient's reaction to different anaesthetic drugs can be estimated, which allows to design artefact and robust controllers. A crucial part in introducing any automatic system is the appropriate testing of the system prior to the application in the actual environment. Therefore, a simulation tool was developed, which allows strict closed-loop testing and moreover, allows the involved anaesthetist to ``train'' on the system. A second focus are the descriptions of the single controllers for the main four objectives, which includes many details on the specific implementation. All controllers were tested during pilot studies and with one exception also tested during a clinical study. The results are described in detail. The clinical studies are partially designed to compare the performance of the controllers to the performance of an anaesthetist. The results suggest that the automatic system outperforms the anaesthetist and indications are found that patient safety may be improved.


Type of Publication:

(03)Ph.D. Thesis

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% Autogenerated BibTeX entry
@PhDThesis { Xxx:2003:IFA_438,
    author={K.S. Stadler},
    title={{Modelling and Control in Anaesthesia - From Design to
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