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Kron reduction of graphs with applications to electrical networks


F. Dörfler, F. Bullo


Consider a weighted and undirected graph, possibly with self-loops, and its corresponding Laplacian matrix, possibly augmented with additional diagonal elements corresponding to the self-loops. The Kron reduction of this graph is again a graph whose Laplacian matrix is obtained by the Schur complement of the original Laplacian matrix with respect to a subset of nodes. The Kron reduction process is ubiquitous in classic circuit theory and in related disciplines such as electrical impedance tomography, smart grid monitoring, transient stability assessment in power networks, or analysis and simulation of induction motors and power electronics. More general applications of Kron reduction occur in sparse matrix algorithms, multi-grid solvers, nite{element analysis, and Markov chains. The Schur complement of a Laplacian matrix and related concepts have also been studied under di erent names and as purely theoretic problems in the literature on linear algebra. In this paper we propose a general graph-theoretic framework for Kron reduction that leads to novel and deep insights both on the mathematical and the physical side. We show the applicability of our framework to various practical problem setups arising in engineering applications and computation. Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive and detailed graph-theoretic analysis of the Kron reduction process encompassing topological, algebraic, spectral, resistive, and sensitivity analyses. Throughout our theoretic elaborations we especially emphasize the practical applicability of our results.


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% Autogenerated BibTeX entry
@Misc { D_rBul:2011:IFA_4952,
    author={F. D{\"o}rfler and F. Bullo},
    title={{Kron reduction of graphs with applications to electrical
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