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A reliable gyroscope-based gait-phase detection sensor embedded in a shoe insole


I. Pappas, T. Keller, S. Mangold, M.R. Popovic, V. Dietz, M. Morari

IEEE Sensors, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 268-274

This paper presents results of patient experiments using a new gait phase detection sensor (GPDS) together with a programmable functional electrical stimulation (FES) system for subjects with a dropped-foot walking dysfunction. The gait phase detection sensor (sensors and processing unit) is entirely embedded in a shoe insole and detects in real time four phases (events) during the gait cycle: stance, heel-off, swing and heel-strike. The instrumented GPDS insole consists of a miniature gyroscope that measures the rotational velocity of the foot with respect to the ground and three force sensitive resistors that measure the force load on the shoe insole at the heel and the metatarsal bones. The extracted gait phase signal is transmitted from the embedded microcontroller to the electrical stimulator and is used in a finite state control scheme to time the electrical stimulation sequences. The electrical stimulations induce muscle contractions in the paralyzed muscles leading to a more physiological motion of the affected leg. The experimental results of the quantitative motion analysis during walking of the affected and nonaffected sides showed that the use of the combined insole and FES system lead to a significant improvement in the gait-kinematics of the affected leg. This combined sensor and stimulation system has the potential to serve as a walking aid for rehabilitation training and gait restoration in a wide range of gait disabilities after brain-stroke, spinal-cord injury or neurological diseases.

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% Autogenerated BibTeX entry
@Article { PapEtal:2004:IFA_75,
    author={I. Pappas and T. Keller and S. Mangold and M.R. Popovic and V. Dietz and M. Morari},
    title={{A reliable gyroscope-based gait-phase detection sensor
	  embedded in a shoe insole}},
    journal={IEEE Sensors},
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